Canada is a North American country surrounded by the Atlantic, the Pacific, and the Arctic Oceans as well as the United States. Despite being the second-largest country in the world, it is sparsely populated and with grandeur landscapes, diverse wildlife, and a multicultural community. Canada’s official languages are French and English which is evidence of its history as land being fought over by two powerful countries - the French and British.

As a wealthy nation with a high-tech industrial market economy, Canada can be compared to that of the US economic system, production framework, and high standards of living. The advancement of its manufacturing, service and mining industries has turned the country into a single industrial and urban from a rural economy. The US-Canada Free Trade Agreement, as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement, have increased its trade and economic unification with the US which is the country’s primary trading partner. Canada is the major supplier of energy products to the US, including uranium, gas, oil, and electricity. With the nation’s abundant natural resources, adept manpower, and advanced capital plant, Canada has benefited from massive economic growth from 1993 until 2007. However, the global recession caused an economic downturn in the final months of 2008.

The national currency of Canada is the Canadian dollar which is nicknamed the “loonie”. It was first introduced in 1858 in the Province of Canada, replacing the Canadian pound. In 1871, through its Uniform Currency Act, the Canadian dollar replaced various monetary units of the provinces.

Most Canadian banknotes feature Queen Elizabeth II. Another significant person portrayed on paper bills is John A. Macdonald who was the country’s first Prime Minister. Its current banknotes reflect maple leaves and prominent figures such as Queen Elizabeth II, Robert Laird Borden, William Lyon Mackenzie King, Wilfrid Laurier, and John Alexander Macdonald. These banknotes are printed on a polymer to improve their durability and security.

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