German New Guinea

German New Guinea was a part of the German colonial empire that included the northeastern portion of New Guinea and nearby island groups. The territory was established in 1884, with Kaiser-Wilhelmsland becoming a German protectorate. Other islands were added subsequently, including the Bismarck Archipelago, the North Solomon Islands, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, the Caroline Islands, Palau, and the Mariana Islands (excluding Guam). German New Guinea, however, didn’t include German Samoa. 

After World War I in 1914, Australian forces took control of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland and nearby islands. Other German colonies in the Pacific were occupied by Japan occupied. Today, Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the North Solomon Islands are part of Papua New Guinea, while the Northern Mariana Islands are an unincorporated US territory, and the Carolines, Marshall Islands, Nauru, and Palau became independent countries. 

New Guinea was heavily subsidized by the German government until 1908, but failed to produce a profit as local workers refused to work on German plantations and many died. The German government took control from the New Guinea Company in 1899 after burying "nine million marks" in Kaiser-Wilhelmsland. The Company was still a major commercial player in the region, receiving "four hundred thousand marks" annually from the colony. The distance from the Metropole, lack of links with world trade routes, an inhospitable climate, and inability to integrate locals into the economy hampered sustainability efforts. 

The Mark was the official currency of German New Guinea between 1884 and 1911, which was initially being equal to the German Mark. In 1911, the German New Guinea mark was replaced by the German Mark as the only legal tender in the colonies. During World War I, when Australia occupied the region, it issued Treasury notes denominated in Marks, which were later replaced by the Australian pound.