The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also known as the Central African Federation or CAF, was a colonial federation that included the British self-governing colony Southern Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe) and the two British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) and Nyasaland (present-day Malawi). The federation existed from 1953 to 1963.
Due to the growth of secondary industries, increased white immigration in Southern Rhodesia, and the copper boom in Northern Rhodesia, white political leaders and industrialists urged the imperial government to form an amalgamated territory that could provide larger markets and draw on black labor in Nyasaland. The Federation was established on 1 August 1953 with a Governor-General as a representative of the Queen. Though certain enactments applied to the Federation as a whole, the constitutional status of the three territories was not affected. Blacks in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland opposed the Federation since its inception because many of the policies enforced in the Federation were favorable only to the whites.
Growing support towards the end of colonialism, black discontent, and pressure to de-colonize from the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity (OAU) led to the collapse of the federation. The federation officially ended on 31 December 1963. Shortly after, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent and renamed themselves Zambia and Malawi, respectively. In 1965, Southern Rhodesia declared independence as the state of Rhodesia.
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland used the Federation pound as its currency. The Bank of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was the central bank of the Federation. It issued the following denominations: 10 shillings, 1 pound, 5 pounds, and 10 pounds. All federation banknotes featured the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II in front and different natural resources at the back. These notes circulated until the dissolution of the federation in 1963.