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South West Africa

South West Africa was once a German colony from 1884 to 1915 and came under South African administration until 1990 when it became modern-day Namibia. It shared borders with Angola, Botswana, South Africa, and Zambia. Despite the United Nations abolishing the League of Nations mandate in 1966, South Africa retained control over the territory in violation of international law. From 1915 to 1978, South Africa governed it directly, but the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference set the stage for semi-autonomous rule. A Transitional Government of National Unity was formed after granting limited home rule from 1978 to 1985. Namibia finally gained independence in 1990, except for Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands, which remained under South African rule until 1994. 

Namibia possesses a dual economy, comprising a modern market sector dominated by mining, ranching, and fishing, generating the majority of its wealth, while a traditional subsistence sector supports the bulk of the labor force. In 1981, approximately 60% of the 500,000-strong workforce was engaged in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product (GDP) reached $1.712 billion in 1980, exhibiting an average growth rate of 2.5% between 1970 and 1980.  

However, due to persistent drought, political uncertainty, reduced demand for minerals, and past overfishing, real growth has been negative since 1978. Despite this, Namibia boasts a well-developed infrastructure in comparison to its population size. With an annual population growth rate of 2.7%, the country lacks separate representation in international organizations.

The South West African pound was the currency in circulation from the 1930s to 1959. Issued by the Standard Bank of South Africa Limited, Barclays Bank, and Volkskas Limited, it coexisted with South African pound notes until 1961 when they were replaced by rand notes. The South West African mark was the temporary currency between 1916 and 1918.

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